The museum at the center of the Russian Capital
The Moscow Kremlin is the oldest part of Moscow, the main socio-political, spiritual, religious and historical center of Russian capital. Kremlin is the residence of the President of Russia.
The Kremlin is situated on a high, left bank of the Moskva River – on a Borovitsky hill. The complex of the Kremlin looks like an irregular triangle with area of 27.5 hectares. The southern wall is facing the Moscow River, north-west – an Alexander Garden, the east – the Red Square.
The first settlements on the territory of the Moscow Kremlin are belong to the Bronze Age (II century BC). Initially, the Kremlin served as fortress within the Slavic settlement that emerged on the Borovitsky hill. The first annalistic mention of Moscow dates back to 1147. In 1156 on the territory of modern Kremlin were built the first building with a total length of about 700 m, but in 1237 during the Mongol-Tatar invasion, that first Kremlin has been completely destroyed.
From the middle of the XIII century the Kremlin was the residence of the princes of Moscow. In the XIV century it has walls and towers from an oak. Later, Dmitry Donskoy replaced the wooden walls of the Kremlin with a white stone. From this period in historical documents Moscow has common name as “White stone Moscow” – «Москва белокаменная».
In the second half of XV century, the Moscow Kremlin was rebuilt by an Italian architects and got a modern look. The center of a Kremlin is Cathedral Square with the Cathedral of the Assumption – Успенский Собор (which hosted the coronation of the Russian tsars and emperors), the Annunciation Cathedral – Благовещенский Собор, the Faceted Chamber – Грановитая Палата (where foreign ambassadors were taken), Archangel Cathedral (served as a burial place of Russian tzars) and the bell tower of Ivan the Great.
At the end of the XV century the Kremlin was rebuilt again. New walls and towers became taller and thicker than the former, and were faced with red brick. At the beginning of the XVI century on the site of today’s Red Square was dug a trench with the water from the river Neglinnaya. Thus the Kremlin has become an impregnable fortress, surrounded by water from all sides. Now there is no this trench and you can see the Red Square and Alexander Garden and go inside the Kremlin. It became a museum under the open sky. Here some things you can see here:
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